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Angika, the language of Anga Desh, India is one of the most ancient language of the world.

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Dr. Krishna Kumar, Birmingham, England

The 27 Aug '05 was the historical day for the recognition of Angika at world level. When first time in the history of Angika, Kundan Amitabh participated in a three days International Multilingual Symposium on the topic of National Integration of Indians and presented a paper in Angika. Dr. Krishna Kumar (Left) led Geetanjali Multilingual Society, Birmingham was the key organiser. More.......




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ANG MADHURI, a monthly in Angika language is being published continuously since last 37 years.

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ANGIKA LANGUAGE     अंगिका भाषा

Angika is considered as oldest language of Hindi family. According to Pundit Rahul Sankritiyayan, the evidences of oldest form of written Hindi literatures are available in the Sarah’s Angika poetries of 800 A.D.

The first poet of Hindi literature, Saraha, was also the first poet of the Angika language and literature. Saraha belongs to the 8th century, and is the first poet whose poetry is available in written form.

Classification : Indo European - Indo Iranian - Indo Aryan - Eastern zone - Bihari – Angika

ISO 639-2 & ISO/DIS 639-3 Code for Angika Language : anp

Angika is written in the Anga Lipi, Kaithi, and Devnagri scripts.

Angika is among very few languages of India and world in which a Search Engine (Google-Angika) has been developed and is available for public use since 2004. Google Angika has been developed by Google Search Engine with the help of Mr. Kundan Amitabh.

Angika is a language of the Anga region of India, more than 58,000 km² area that falls within the states of Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal. Angika is spoken by more than 30 million of the Indian population ((As per 2001 Census and as per the statement given in Indian Parliament by Shri Subodh Roy Member of Parliament of India which is available in PARLIAMENTRY PROCEEDINGS ), and around 50 million worldwide.

Angika is spoken in most of the Metros of India like Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, and Bangalore.

Angika is also spoken in most of the industrial cities of India like Durgapur, Vadodara, Surat, Patna, Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Bokaro and other parts of the country.

Angika is also spoken in Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, and other Southeast Asian countries. Besides this, a sizeable Angika speaking population migrated in other countries such as the Gulf, United States and the United Kingdom.

Angika is closely related to Bengali, Oriya, and Assamese. It is grouped in with the Bihari languages (including Bhojpuri, Magahi, Maithili and Vajjika). Angika is highly intelligible with other Bihari languages.

It may be correlated with the Cham Language of Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, and China. As Cham is the language of the Cham people of Southeast Asia, and formerly the language of Champa in central Vietnam. Champa is one of the oldest colonies of Southeast Asia, which had been established by the inhabitants of Anga Mahajanapada of Ancient India around 2000 years ago.

There exists an independent web portal for the Angika language and literature, angika.com. which is fully devoted to Angika language. Angika.com is available in English and Angika languages.This website has been constructed by Mr. Kundan Amitabh in the year 2003.

Angika was called as Chikka-Chiki by George GA Grierson in one of the Linugistic Survey of India. Various alternate names for the language are used: Anga, Aangi, Angikar, Chhika-Chhiki, Bhagalpuri, Apbhramsa, Bihari.

Dialects of Angika include : Deshi, Dakhnaha, Mungeria, Devgharia, Gidhhoria, Dharampuria.

Number of programmes are broadcasted from Patna and Bhagalpur Radio stations. Similarly, number of programmes are telecasted from Patna Doordarshan.

Demography: Southern Bihar- Bhagalpur District, Munger District, Banka District, Lakhisarai District, Jamui District and Sheikhpura District. Northern Bihar- Katihar District, Purnia District, Khagaria District, Begusarai District, Saharsa District, Madhepura District, Araria District, Kishanganj District and Supaul District. Jharkhand - Sahebganj District, Godda District, Dumka District, Deoghar District, Pakur District and Giridih District. West Bengal - Malda District Nepal - Angika is also spoken in Tarai region of Nepal. South-East Asian countries - Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia and others. Elsewhere- A large number of Angika speakers have migrated to the Persian Gulf, the United Kingdom , the United States and other countries. Also a substantial portion of the Angika-speaking population has settled elsewhere in India, mainly in Punjab State, Mumbai, Delhi, Calcutta, Baroda, Surat, Chandigarh, Ludhiana, Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Rourkela, and Bokaro etc.

अंगिका (Angika)मुख्य रूप से प्राचीन अंग(Anga or Ang)यानि भारत के उत्तरी,पूवी एवं दक्षिण बिहार, झारखंड, बंगाल, आसाम, उङीसा और नेपाल के तराई के ईलाक़ों मे बोली जानेवाली भाषा है.यह प्राचीन भाषा कम्बोडिया,वियतनाम,मलेशिया आदि देशों में भी प्राचीन समय से बोली जाती रही है.अंगिका भाषा आर्य-भाषा परिवार का सदस्य है और भाषाई तौर पर बांग्ला, असमिया, उड़िया और नेपाली,ख्मेर भाषा से इसका काफी निकट का संबंध है. प्राचीन अंगिका के विकास के शुरूआती दौर को प्राकृत और अपभ्रंश के विकास से जोड़ा जाता है.लगभग 4 से 5 करोड़ लोग अंगिका को मातृ-भाषा के रुप में प्रयोग करते हैं और इसके प्रयोगकर्ता भारत के विभिन्न हिस्सों सहित विश्व के कई देशों मे फैले हैं.भारत की अंगिका को साहित्यिक भाषा का दर्जा हासिल है.अंगिका साहित्य का अपना समृद्ध इतिहास रहा है और आठवीं शताब्दी के कवि सरह या सरहपा को अंगिका साहित्य में सबसे ऊँचा दर्जा प्राप्त है.सरहपा को हिन्दी एवं अंगिका का आदि कवि माना जाता है.भारत सरकार द्वारा अंगिका को जल्द ही भारतीय संविधान की आठवीं अनुसूची में भी शामिल किया जायगा. वर्ष 2003 में कुंदन अमिताभ (Kundan Amitabh) द्धारा अंगिका भाषा का अपना एक वेब साइट www.angika.com( http://www.angika.com )भी तैयार किया गया है। वर्ष 2004 में कुंदन अमिताभ के सहयोग से अंगिका भाषा का अपना एक सचॆ इंजन (Search Engine),Google-Angika(http://www.google.com/intl/bh/) भी तैयार किया गया है. प्राचीन समय में अंगिका भाषा की अपनी एक अलग लिपि,अंग लिपि भी थी.


One of the stock list of the sixteen Powers or Great Countries (Mahájanapadá), mentioned in the Pitakas. E.g., A.i.213; iv.252, 256, 260. The countries mentioned are Anga, Magadha, Kásí, Kosala, Vajji, Mallá, Cetí, Vamsá, Kuru, Pańcála, Macchá, Súrasena, Assaka, Avantí, Gandhára, and Kamboja. Other similar lists occur elsewhere, e.g. D.ii.200 (where ten countries are mentioned); see also Mtu.i.34 and i.198; and Lal.24(22).

It was to the east of Magadha, from which it was separated by the River Campá, and had as its capital city Campá, near the modern Bhagalpur (Cunningham, pp. 546-7). Other cities mentioned are Bhaddiya (DA.i.279; DhA.i.384) and Assapura (M.i.271).

The country is generally referred to by the name of its people, the Angá, though occasionally (E.g., DhA.i.384) the name Angarattha is used. In the Buddha's time it was subject to Magadha, (ThagA.i.548) whose king Bimbisára was, we are told, held in esteem also by the people of Anga (MA.i.394), and the people of the two countries evidently used to pay frequent visits to each other (J.ii.211). We never hear of its having regained its former independence, and traditions of war between the two countries are mentioned (E.g., J.iv.454; J.v.316; J.vi.271).

In the Buddha's time the Angarájá was just a wealthy nobleman, and he is mentioned merely as having granted a pension to a Brahmin (M.ii.163). The people of Anga and Magadha are generally mentioned together, so we may gather that by the Buddha's time they had become one people. They provide Uruvela-Kassapa with offerings for his great sacrifice (Vin.i.27). It was their custom to offer an annual sacrifice to Mahá-Brahmá in the hope of gaining reward a hundred thousand fold. On one occasion Sakka appears in person and goes with them to the Buddha so that they may not waste their energies in futile sacrifices (SA.i.269-70).

Several discourses were preached in the Anga country, among them being the Sonadanda Sutta and the two Assapura Suttas (Mahá- and Cúla-). The Mahágovinda Sutta seems to indicate that once, in the past, Dhatarattha was king of Anga. But this, perhaps, refers to another country (Dial.ii.270 n.; see also The Rámáyana i.8, 9, 17, 25).

Sona Kolivisa, before he entered the Order, was a squire (paddhagu) of Anga. Thag.v.632.

The earliest reference to Angas (अंग) is illustrated in the Atharava Veda (V.22.14) where they find mention along with the Magadhas, Gandharis and the Mujavatas, all apparently as a despised people.

The Jaina Prajnapana ranks the Angas and the Vangas in the first group of Aryan peoples.

According to Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya, Anga was one of the sixteen great nations (solas Mahajanapadas) which had flourished in central and north-west India in the 6th century BC.

Anga also finds mention in the Jaina Bhagvati-Sutra's list of ancient Janapadas.

The Puranic texts like the Garuda Purana, Vishnu-Dharmottara, and the Markendeya Purana divide ancient Janpada horizon into nine divisions and place the Janapadas of the Angas, Kalinngas, Vangas, Pundras or Pundra Kingdom (now some part of East Bihar ie Purnea, West Bengal and Bangla Desh), Vidarbhas, and Vindhya-vasins in the Purva-Dakshina division. (Garuda 55.12; V.D. I.9.4; Markendeya P. 56.16-18).

Based on Mahabharata evidence, the kingdom of the Angas roughly corresponded to the region of Bhagalpur and Monghyr in Bihar and parts of Bengal; later extended to include most of Bengal. The River Champa (modern Chanan) formed the boundaries between the Magadha in the west and Anga in the east. Anga was bounded by river Koshi on the north. According to the Mahabharata, Duryodhana had named Karna the King of Anga.

Sabhaparava of Mahabharata (II.44.9) mentions Anga and Vanga as forming one country. The Katha-Sarit-Sagara also attests that Vitankapur, a city of Anga was situated on the shores of the sea. Thus the boundaries of Anga may have extended to the sea in the east.

The capital of Anga was Champa. According to Mahabharata and Harivamsa, Champa was formerly known as Malini. Champa was located on the right bank of river Ganga near its junction with river Champa. It was a very flourishing city and is referred to as one of six principal cities of ancient India (Digha Nikaya). In the Jataka stories, the city of Champa is also referred to as Kala-Champa. Maha-Janaka Jataka states that the city was located about sixty yojanas (one yojana = 16.4 km) from Mithila. The relics of actual site of ancient Champa are stated to still exist near Bhagalpur in Bihar in the names of two villages called Champanagara and Champapura.

Champa was noted for its wealth and commerce. It was also a great center of trade and commerce and its merchants regularly sailed to distant Suvarnabhumi for trading purposes. The ancient name of region and kingdom of Champa of central Vietnam (Lin-yi in Chinese records) apparently has its origin in this east Indian Champa.

Other important cities of Anga are said to be Assapura and Bhadrika.

Mahabharata (I.104.53-54) and Puranic literature (Matsya Purana: 48.19) attest that the name Anga had originated eponymously from the name of prince Anga, the founder of the kingdom. Matsya Purana describes the father of this eponymous hero as the chief among the demons (danavarshabhah).

Bodhayana Dharma Sutra groups the Angas with people of mixed origin and Mahbharata brands an Anga prince (not Karana of the Mahabharata) as a mlechcha and barbarian.

The Puranas list several early kings of Anga. The Mahagovinda Suttanta refers to king Dhatarattha of Anga. Jaina texts refer to Dhadhivahana, as a ruler of the Angas. Puranas and Harivamsa represent him as the son and immediate successor of Anga, the eponymous founder of the kingdom. Jaina traditions place him at the beginning of sixth century BCE.

Between the Vatsas and the realm of Anga, lived the Magadhas, who initially were comparatively a weak people. A great struggle went on between the Angas and its eastern neighbors. The Vidhura Pandita Jataka describes Rajagriha (Magadhan Capital) as the city of Anga and Mahabharata also refers to a sacrifice performed by the king of Anga at Mount Vishnupada (at Gaya). This indicates that Anga had initially succeeded in annexing the Magadhas, and thus its borders extended to the kingdom of Matsya country.

This success of Angas did not last long. About the middle of 6th century BC, Bimbisara, the crown prince of Magadha had killed Brahmadatta, the last independent king of Anga and seized Champa. Bimbisara made it as his head-quarters and ruled over it as his father's Viceroy. Thenceforth, Anga became an integral part of growing Magadha empire (PHAI, 1996).

Other references to Anga:

2. Anga. King.-Chief lay supporter of Sumana Buddha (BuA.130); the Buddhavamsa mentions Varuna and Sarana as Sumana's aggupattháká and Udena as upattháka. Bu.v.28.

3. Anga.-A king of Benares on whose feet hair grew. He inquired of the brahmins the way to heaven, and was told to retire to the forest and tend the sacred fire. He went to Himavá with many cows and women and did as he was counselled. The milk and ghee left over from his sacrifices were thrown away, and from them arose many minor rivers, the Ganges itself, and even the sea. Later he became Indra's companion. J.vi.203

4. Anga.-King of the Anga country, between whom and King Magadha there was constant war, with varying fortunes. In the end, Magadha, with the help of the Nága king Campeyya, seized Anga and slew him. J.iv.453.

5. Anga.-One of the Pacceka Buddhas mentioned in the list in the Apadana Commentary. ApA.i.107.

6. Angá.-Chieftains of Anga, so called, according to the Digha Nikáya Commentary (i.279), because of the beauty of their limbs. Their name was customarily (rúlhi-vasena) used to denote their country.


Saraha is the first poet of Angika language whose poetries are available in written form. These poems were written by him in 800 A.D. The Sarah's famous "Doha Kosha" is written in Angika Language. He has written 36 books in Angika. Sarah is also considered as the first poet of Hindi language whose poetry is available in written forms. Mr. Suman Soorow, Dr. Permanand Pandey, Dr. Amrendra, Dr. Naresh Pandey Chakore, Dr. Abhaykant Choudhary, Mr. Gorelal Manishi, Mr. Chandraprakash Jagpriya, Mr. Vidyabhusan Venu, and Mr. Kundan Amitabh, are among prominent scholars of Angika Language who have contributed lots in Angika Literature. Presently hundreds of standard books and thousands of articles are available in Angika language. Ang Madhuri, a monthly magazine of Angika language is being published by Dr. Naresh Pandey Chakore regularly since last 36 years. Angika is being taught in Tilkamanjhi University of Bihar state at Graduation and Post Graduation Levels..


The first Angika language film "Khagaria Vali Bhouji" released in year 2007. Mr. Kunal Baikunth Singh is the Producer, Director, and Hero of this Film. Heroine is Miss Neetu Singh. Angika.com was the web media partner of this first ever-released film of Angika language. .





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